Horse slaughter continues despite lack of regulations in what ‘slaughter’ horses are given via fed and medication. RX that have not been tested for toxicity and long term damage if consumed.
(March 27, 2012)— Front Range Equine Rescue and The Humane Society of the United States
filed a legal petition with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent former companion,
working, competition and wild horses from being used as human food. The petition alleges that
the drugs given to these horses throughout their lives are banned by FDA and/or potentially
dangerous to humans. Using these horses for human consumption creates an unacceptable and
illegal public health threat under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
Current FDA rules do not require sufficient testing or documentation to ensure that former
companion and other non-livestock horses slaughtered for human food do not contain or have not
been administered prohibited substances. The “killer-buyers” who acquire these horses typically
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Seeds are formed inside a FEMALE flower after pollination ( or Fruit).
-When pollen is introduced to the flower, the egg becomes an embryo and form a hard shell.
Seeds are cheap and available
Most seeds prefer 70-80 deg.
Not nutrient until second set of true leaves.
Only plant seed twice the depth of the diameter of the seed.
Generally a 3-6 week process to pop and bring seed to transplant.
Planting in the system:
When seedlings and plugs have been ‘hardened off’ they can be placed into system.
Generally takes a few days to adapt.
Light feeding for first week or two.
Warmer temps speed up growth.
Most seeds prefer 70-80 degreess. feeding second set of true leaves, 3-6 weeks.
Cloning fast process. genetic reproduction of mother plant.
Hardened off plants before putting them in ‘system’.
Temperature: usually as temp rises so do metabolisms. Each plant has its temp ranges will encourage stress or prolonged maturation.
Humidity The amount of water in the air. High humidity will prevent plants from transpiring, but can also prevent plants from cooling themselves. High humidity can also create an ideal climate for powdery mildew and botrytis.y the sun, HPS, MH and flu
Evaporation based cooling
Light( Par) Photosynthetic active radiation is the light levels which stimulate photosynthesis. PAR light is produced.
Dissolved O2- Avliable in nutes solution. Roots require O2 to perform respiration. Generally allows between 5-25 ppm of DO in nute for water culture. if DO is not available, anaerobic respiration caused the plant to produce toxic levels of ethanol and plant will drown in its own disease.
Electrical conductivity Higher EC the higher salts in water and matter.
All ‘Pens’ measure EC ( Electrical conductivity) and convert to PPM=TDS ( Total dissolved solids)
– Gives a reading of how much salt and or matter is in the water.
-A reading should be taken of the water before adding Nutes.
microbiology in Nutes:
-All bodies of water posses Microbiology.
Organic hydro uses high levels of microbiology to decompose organic matter.
Aerobic bacteria require high levels of O2.
-Best achieved through moving water.(Water fall is best way to get O2 to dissolve in nute water.)
Warm water holds less dissolved o2 then cool water.
-temps best kept at 68-75 deg.
Air stones are only 5% effective.
beneficial bacteria and fungi are prevention to disease.
Imbalance= Plant stress, slimy brown rotting ro0ts.( Root rot)
Healthy= High O2 Nutes, beneficial bacteria, breeding, comp for nutes= HAPPY plants.
-CO2- Intake CO2 and exhale O2
-Natural air contains approx 2% CO2
-Measured in PPM ( Ideal 1000-1600 ppm)
-Can Purchase CO2 and regulator to release CO2 when levels dip.
-Some greenhouses operation use of CO2 from near by factories or resources.
-Co2 increases yield.
Down side. Increased Heat, possible CO2 failure choking plants.
17 essential plant Nutes.
PH adjust with balance of TDS
Defecienes of even 1 element can show.
microbiology plays a larger roll in prganics but is also helpful in synthetics.
Commercially avaliable Nutes easy and accurate.
Supplemental CO2 can play a roll.
Nitrogen: Necessary for the formation of amino acids, co enzymes, and chlorophyll.
deficiency: A lack of Nitrogen ( in form of nitrate and ammonium) will result in spindly plants with small yellowish leaves. Some parts of the plant may turn purple.
toxicity: Too much Nitrogen.
Phosphorous: Production of sugars, phosphate and ATP ( energy) Flower and fruit production root growth.
Low phosphorus is dark green veins, and yellow between.
(K) potassium: Protein synthesis requires high potassium levels. hardiness, root growth
Deficiency: growth slows while the older leaves fall.
(Ca) calcium required for cell wall formation.
deficiency: Calcium deficiency causes stunting and crinkling leaves.
Young shoots die and blooms fall from the plant. Ca def tomatoes will get brown spots on bottom of fruit which will cause decay especially on bottom.
(s) Sulfur: Protein synthesis, water up take, fruiting and seeding.
(Fe) Iron: Builds chlorophyll formation, helps in cell production.
(Mg) Magnesium: Utilized in chlorophyll production and enzyme manufacture.
-Def Mag def causes older leaves to curl and yellow.
(B) Boron: Necessary for the formation of cell walls in combination with Ca.
-Def- Boron def results in brittle stems and poor growth. stems may twist and split.
toxicity: Excessive boron will cause leaf tips to become yellow and fall off.
(Mn) Manganese: A catalyst in the growth process, formation of O2 in photosynthesis.
deficiency: (Mn) def causes yellowing of leaves between the veins and failed blooms.
(Zn) Zinc: Utilized in chlorophyll production, respiration and nitrogen metao=bolism.
Def- small leaves crinkled margins.
(Mo) Molybdenum: Nitrogen metabolism and fixation. ( Hold nitro in place)
-Def Signs small yellow leaves.
(Cu) Copper activates enzymes, necessary for photosynthesis and respiration.
-Def- Copper defi
(co) Colbalt: WHILE COLBAT IS NOT KNOWN TO BE DIRECTLY REQUIRED BY PLANTS, NITRO FIXING ORGANISM THAT HELP LEGUMES,LIKE BEANS AND ALFALFA FEED REQUIRE cOBLAT IN TRACE AMOUNTS. cOBALT IS ALSO CONTAINED IN VITAMIN b-12, WHICH IS VITAL TO ALL FORMS OF LIFE.
Selecting a nute:
Most Hydro formulas are 2 parts.
Described as N-P-K.
-Gives you an idea of contents 19N-10P-10K= 30%
remainder made up of micro nutes chelates or fillers.
Ferts for soil don’t always work for hydro.
-Hydro needs complete ferts.
Everything living and growing is ‘organic’
Most elements exist as compound because they are chemically unstable when in pure form.
Plants can access C-Calcium H-Hydrogen and O oxygen from either water or the atmosphere and create food using light.
Most pure unstable elements will combine with other elements will combine with other elements until stabilized.
-Most hydroponic formulas are 2 part that must be mixed with water 1 at a time.
Soil is a reservoir for H20
Field capacity (FC) is the upper limit of water in the soil. Water stops.
Saturation: Max H20, water is flowing freely through soil.
Field capacity is expressed in in/ft or %.
Used to help determine : Plant available water (PAW)
FC is 25% by volume= with in 12′ of Soil, 25% is H20.
3/12=.25 or 25%
or 25%=.25 x 12=3/ft
Permanet wilting point. (PWP)
if PWP is 15.4%, what is PWP in inches per foot.
Three main stages:
Field Capactity ( Soil resevoir is full) and can no longer pull water…
Permanet wilting point-