Nitrogen: Necessary for the formation of amino acids, co enzymes, and chlorophyll.
deficiency: A lack of Nitrogen ( in form of nitrate and ammonium) will result in spindly plants with small yellowish leaves. Some parts of the plant may turn purple.
toxicity: Too much Nitrogen.
Phosphorous: Production of sugars, phosphate and ATP ( energy) Flower and fruit production root growth.
Low phosphorus is dark green veins, and yellow between.
(K) potassium: Protein synthesis requires high potassium levels. hardiness, root growth
Deficiency: growth slows while the older leaves fall.
(Ca) calcium required for cell wall formation.
deficiency: Calcium deficiency causes stunting and crinkling leaves.
Young shoots die and blooms fall from the plant. Ca def tomatoes will get brown spots on bottom of fruit which will cause decay especially on bottom.
(s) Sulfur: Protein synthesis, water up take, fruiting and seeding.
(Fe) Iron: Builds chlorophyll formation, helps in cell production.
(Mg) Magnesium: Utilized in chlorophyll production and enzyme manufacture.
-Def Mag def causes older leaves to curl and yellow.
(B) Boron: Necessary for the formation of cell walls in combination with Ca.
-Def- Boron def results in brittle stems and poor growth. stems may twist and split.
toxicity: Excessive boron will cause leaf tips to become yellow and fall off.
(Mn) Manganese: A catalyst in the growth process, formation of O2 in photosynthesis.
deficiency: (Mn) def causes yellowing of leaves between the veins and failed blooms.
(Zn) Zinc: Utilized in chlorophyll production, respiration and nitrogen metao=bolism.
Def- small leaves crinkled margins.
(Mo) Molybdenum: Nitrogen metabolism and fixation. ( Hold nitro in place)
-Def Signs small yellow leaves.
(Cu) Copper activates enzymes, necessary for photosynthesis and respiration.
-Def- Copper defi
(co) Colbalt: WHILE COLBAT IS NOT KNOWN TO BE DIRECTLY REQUIRED BY PLANTS, NITRO FIXING ORGANISM THAT HELP LEGUMES,LIKE BEANS AND ALFALFA FEED REQUIRE cOBLAT IN TRACE AMOUNTS. cOBALT IS ALSO CONTAINED IN VITAMIN b-12, WHICH IS VITAL TO ALL FORMS OF LIFE.
Selecting a nute:
Most Hydro formulas are 2 parts.
Described as N-P-K.
-Gives you an idea of contents 19N-10P-10K= 30%
remainder made up of micro nutes chelates or fillers.
Ferts for soil don’t always work for hydro.
-Hydro needs complete ferts.
Everything living and growing is ‘organic’
Most elements exist as compound because they are chemically unstable when in pure form.
Plants can access C-Calcium H-Hydrogen and O oxygen from either water or the atmosphere and create food using light.
Most pure unstable elements will combine with other elements will combine with other elements until stabilized.
-Most hydroponic formulas are 2 part that must be mixed with water 1 at a time.
Soil is a reservoir for H20
Field capacity (FC) is the upper limit of water in the soil. Water stops.
Saturation: Max H20, water is flowing freely through soil.
Field capacity is expressed in in/ft or %.
Used to help determine : Plant available water (PAW)
FC is 25% by volume= with in 12′ of Soil, 25% is H20.
3/12=.25 or 25%
or 25%=.25 x 12=3/ft
Permanet wilting point. (PWP)
if PWP is 15.4%, what is PWP in inches per foot.
Three main stages:
Field Capactity ( Soil resevoir is full) and can no longer pull water…
Permanet wilting point-