All ‘Pens’ measure EC ( Electrical conductivity) and convert to PPM=TDS ( Total dissolved solids)

– Gives a reading of how much salt and or matter is in the water.

-A reading should be taken of the water before adding Nutes.


microbiology in Nutes:

-All bodies of water posses Microbiology.

Organic hydro uses high levels of microbiology to decompose organic matter.

Aerobic bacteria require high levels of O2.

-Best achieved through moving water.(Water fall is best way to get O2 to dissolve in nute water.)


Warm water holds less dissolved o2 then cool water.

-temps best kept at 68-75 deg.

Air stones are only 5% effective.

beneficial bacteria and fungi are prevention to disease.


Imbalance= Plant stress, slimy brown rotting ro0ts.( Root rot)

Healthy= High O2 Nutes, beneficial bacteria, breeding, comp for nutes= HAPPY plants.


Supplemental Co2.

-CO2- Intake CO2 and exhale O2

-Natural air contains approx 2% CO2

-Measured in PPM ( Ideal 1000-1600 ppm)

-Can Purchase CO2 and regulator to release CO2 when levels dip.

-Some greenhouses operation use of CO2 from near by factories or resources.

-Co2 increases yield.

Down side. Increased Heat, possible CO2 failure choking plants.



17 essential plant Nutes.

PH adjust with balance of TDS

Defecienes of even 1 element can show.

microbiology plays a larger roll in prganics but is also helpful in synthetics.

Commercially avaliable Nutes easy and accurate.

Supplemental CO2 can play a roll.


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